Founded in 1878 by John Henry Chapman, Chapman & Smith Co. were wholesale dealers of supplies for bakers, confectioners and ice cream makers, according to The Book of Chicagoans: A Biographical Dictionary of Leading Living Men of the City of Chicago, 1905. Because Chapman & Smith sold direct to bakers and other food producers, the company didn’t print lovely advertisements in magazines or create endearing Victorian trade cards the way contemporary manufacturing companies did. Primary sources suggest the Chapman & Smith Co. moved locations 3 times and lasted until at least 1959.
The company is notable to the Old Main assemblage because Chapman & Smith Co. extract bottles were the most numerous identifiable brand in the food category, owing to their use of glass embossing rather than paper labels, which deteriorate over time.
Bottle embossed “Chapman & Smith Co. Trade Mark Chicago, U.S.A.”
Although the Red Raven Splits bottle is similar in size and shape to beer or soda, Marianne Dow, states “Not an alcoholic beverage, it was sold as a hang-over cure, so it was sold in bars as well as restaurants, hotels, and stores. Not a sweet soft drink, it was an aperient water, somewhat bitter, sold in a small bottle.” Red Raven might be one of the rare cases in which the advertising was as successful as the product itself, if not more. Marianne Dow, states “Billy Baxter was the alter ego, if you will, of William J. Kountz, Jr., the man who started the Red Raven Corp. and the Duquesne Distributing Co of Harmerville, Alleghany County, PA. It’s difficult to tell which came first: the concept of selling Red Raven Splits or Kountz’s writings about Billy Baxter’s wild revelries. It appears that Kountz wrote a humorous booklet called One Night In New York Society, which was well received in gentleman’s clubs, bars, etc. with patrons reading the stories out loud, and clamoring for more. Kountz quickly penned several more booklets, and now they included advertising for his product, Red Raven Splits. Orders started coming in for more books, and, ‘oh, what the heck, some of the bottled water too’.”
Bottle embossed “RED RAVEN”
The Joseph Burnett Company’s claim to fame was a useful innovation in the production of vanilla extract. Unlike most of his competitors, having graduated from the Worcester College of Pharmacy, Burnett stands out as one of the few fully qualified proprietors certified as a pharmacist. In this capacity he played a role in the first painless dental surgery publicly performed using ether, as well as producing a string of less effective products, which include a cocaine product to “stimulate healthy and vigorous hair growth.” He also seems to have been a progressive guy, who founded an Episcopal church in Boston that was “free to all, with no distinctions as to wealth, color, race or station.”
Bottle embossed “Burnett’s Standard Flavoring Extracts”
In an era where childhood obesity is a major health concern and people argue about the relative merits of baby formula versus breast feeding, it can be hard to recall that at one time, simply getting enough calories into undernourished babies was a real problem (and still is for many people today). And children routinely died from the “summer complaint,” which was basically “diarrhea, usually in infants caused by spoiled milk” (which has become less of an issue since pasteurization of milk became legally required). So in the true spirit of Victorian industrialism, many dedicated chemists, entrepreneurs and regular hucksters went to work, inventing baby foods and making outlandish claims, to fill this global need. Along with Justus von Liebig, Henri Nestle and Gustav Mellin, a man named Frank Baum invented an infant food which, for reasons I’ve been unable to find, became known as Eskay’s Albumenized Food.
Bottle embossed “Eskay’s Albumenized Food”
A popular household remedy in the late 19th century, Wakefield’s Blackberry Balsam was manufactured in Bloomington, IL, a mere two and half miles from the steps of the Old Main building of Illinois State University, where these artifacts were excavated. Company co-founder Cyrenius Wakefield was a friend to Abraham Lincoln, tended wounded men at the Battle of Shiloh, and was a prominent citizen and notable philanthropist in the growing city of Bloomington.
The famous Blackberry Balsam, while not the cure of cholera and dysentery it was claimed to be, contained mostly botanical ingredients and alcohol, and so unlike many other patent medicines of the era, could at least claim to be beneficial or neutral, rather than harmful to its consumers.
Bottle embossed “WAKEFIELD’S BLACKBERRY BALSAM”
According to Glen Hughes, “Simon B. Kitchel had enjoyed a varied and successful career. Coming to Coldwater, MI after the Civil War, he practiced law and served the county as prosecutor and the city as mayor. Kitchel compounded and sold the famous “Kitchel’s Liniment” — “Good for man or beast” — that became a household word throughout the country.” He also founded a local newspaper, the Daily Reporter, as “Mr. Kitchel had acquired a considerable amount of printing equipment to handle the labels and advertising for his product, and he conceived the idea that a newspaper was the answer to the problem of seasonal shut-downs.”
Bottle embossed “S. B. Kitchel’s Liniment”
The Indianapolis Brewing Company was a merger of 3 breweries, all started by German Americans. The story of this brewery and others like it across the country was tied to the rise of German immigration in the mid 1800s, the temperance movement’s opposition to hard liquor and the social ills it caused, and the shifting political winds that put temperance men and beer lovers together in opposition to slavery.
Bottle embossed “INDIANAPOLIS BREWING CO. TRADEMARK INDIANAPOLIS, IND. U.S.A.”